|A Collection of Definitions of Hypertext
Native and Non-Native Hypertexts
Categories of Hypertext
A Subjective Chronology of
Literary Hypertext, October 1998. Stuart Moulthrop's personal chronology shows
developments in technology since 1945 as well as the print precursors to much literary
hypertext. He reminds us that the Mac appeared in 1984, the WWW in 1990-91, and Netscape
in 1994. Joyce's Afternoon, A Story and other hypertext titles and authors are
listed in this clear chronology, which includes some helpful annotations. --ejc
Examples of a Variety of Native Hypertexts
Patterns of Hypertext, Hypertext Gardens, Conversations with Friends:
Hypertexts with Characters and Chasing Our
These hypertext articles/essays about hypertext issues and problems by Mark Bernstein, the
founder and chief scientist of Eastgate Systems, integrate textual and graphic elements in
varying degrees for a variety of purposes. Note that several of them have links to
printable versions of the text. Patterns
is more sequentially linked than some of the others.
Paper on Information"
This article is hypertexted within several active frames and is sometimes slow to load.
The frames provide another "technology" for hypertext--multiple screens with
different functions open at once.
Matthew Kirschenbaum. "A White Paper on Information."
2 Dec 1998. <http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/~mgk3k/white/index.html>.
(14 Feb. 1999)
Tracing the Growth of a
Michael Shumate. CMC Magazine. Dec.1996. http://www.december.com/cmc/mag/1996/dec/shumate.html.
(14 Feb. 1999)
Writing Life: Technology,
Creativity, and Hypertext Fiction.
Michael Shumate. Thesis (in draft) for Master of Arts in Liberal
Studies, Duke University. 5 Aug.1996. <http://www.duke.edu/~mshumate/fiction/htt/mals.html>
(14 Feb. 1999)
Lines for a Virtual
Matthew Kirschenbaum. Doctoral Disseration in Progress.
Department of English. University of Virginia. http://www.engl.virginia.edu/~mgk3k/cover.html.
(14 Feb. 1999)
Kairos: A Journal for Teachers of Writing in
A progressive and innovative online forum for the exploration of writing, learning, and
teaching in hypertextual environments intended primarily for teachers, researchers, and
tutors of postsecondary writing, since 1996, is a refereed scholarly journal of pieces of
various kinds in native hypertext.
and Intellectual Property (Spring 1998) is a good example of a multivocal "cover
web," and The
Unseen "Other" of Intellectual Property Law or Intellectual Property Is Not
Property: Debunking the Myths of IP Law by TyAnna K. Herrington is one of the
Graphic designers Peter Horvath and Sharon Matarrazo at 6168
include in their corporate site some interesting essays in which the visual elements play
a larger role than the textual. Be sure to visit Three Times Removed and Somewhere Else.
Electronic Theses and
Dissertations in the Humanities
According to Matthew Kirschenbaum, this site serves as a clearing-house for online
information related to electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) in the humanities. The
projects collected here represent a broad range of methodologies and subject matter (at
least half are devoted to non-"cyber" topics). Electronic post-prints of
paper-based theses and dissertations -- increasingly commonplace -- are not listed here.
Note: This site is available through the etext.lib server at the University of Virginia
and is accessible to VCU faculty and students on campus. From home, be prepared to provide
the same access codes that you use to enter other restricted VCU databases. --ejc
More of a hypertext site than a "text." According to Michael Keller (2/12/99),
Stuart Moulthrop calls amazon.com the best hypertext on the web with the end nodes being
Examples of Non-Native Hypertext
American Culture: The Perils and Potentials of Virtual Exhibitions This is a scholarly
article with hypertext links to endnotes/references, images you can enlarge, and other
sites, including the sites being critiqued. Note that the page numbers that correspond
with the print-text version of the article are indicated in bold in the text. Note
also that links take you to footnotes but not back to the place in the text you were just
reading. A convention for returning you to your place has been developed so that you don't
have to use your back button in the browser.
Electronic Citation: David Silver. "Interfacing American Culture:
The Perils and Potentials of Virtual Exhibitions." American Quarterly. 1997.
(2 Feb. 1999)
Traditional Citation: David Silver. "Interfacing American Culture:
The Perils and Potentials of Virtual Exhibitions." American Quarterly 49.4
See Notes on MLA
Hilary Rosner. Feed. (2/4/99). This essay is
hypertextual only in the sense that it has one metalink. It also links to a
Electronic Texts and Sources
Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1940
This project provides subscription access (VCU subscribes) to the full text of the Johns
Hopkins University Press's 40+ scholarly journals in the humanities, social sciences and
mathematics. For example, Postmodern
Quarterly (from the American Studies Association), Callaloo (African American literary
journal), The Emily
Dickinson Journal, The
Henry James Review, to name a few.
The Online Books Page
This site, edited by John Mark Ockerbloom at Carnegie Mellon, claims over 8000 books
online, many of which have links to sites in some way related to the books, and pointers to many directories and archives
of online texts.
This not a site for hypertexts. Its library archives public domain (flat-text) literature
in three categories: Light Literature such as Alice in Wonderland, Through the
Looking-Glass, Peter Pan, Aesop's Fables, etc. Heavy Literature such as the
Bible or other religious documents, Shakespeare, Moby Dick, Paradise Lost,
etc. References such as Roget's Thesaurus, almanacs, and a set of encyclopedia,
University of Virginia Electronic Text Center
The Center aims to build and maintain an internet-accessible collection of SGML texts and
images AND to build and maintain a user community adept at the creation and use of these
materials. Holdings include approximately 40,000 on- and off-line humanities texts in
twelve languages, with more than 19,000 related images (book illustrations, covers,
manuscripts, newspaper pages, museum objects, etc.), available on the Internet or CD-ROM.
Affiliated with Columbia University from 1993 to 1996, this site is again active. It
includes the Oxford Book of English Verse, 1250-1900. You can read about the Bartlebian principles
and search the Archive.
The Electronic Poetry Center
From SUNY Buffalo, the EPC provides resources in electronic poetry and poetics,
particularly contemporary experimental and formally innovative poetries.
Computers and Texts
The journal/newsletter of the CTI Centre for Textual Studies at Oxford University is
distributed in print free of charge to academics in the United Kingdom. The online version
is a collection of the full "flat text" articles.
URLographies for Sources in the Humanities
Literary Resources on the Internet
From Jack Lynch at Rutgers University. Last updated 12/98.
Voice of the Shuttle
Web Page for Humanities Research from Alan Liu at the University of California Santa
Barbara. A comprehensive, newly updated, multidisciplinary site with sections on hypertext
research and theory, cyberpunk fiction, computers and composition, cyberethics and
cyberlaw, among many others of interest to hypertext writers. --ejc
The English Server
Based in the English Department at Carnegie Mellon University, this site has published
writings and artwork to online readers since 1990; offers over twenty thousand works,
covering a wide range of interests, grouped under broad subject headings, such as rhetoric and feminism; mostly list of sites with no
annotations. --ejc 2/16/99
American Studies Web
Fully searchable reference and research guide from Randy Bass at Georgetown University.
Excellent section on Literature and Hypertext. --ejc
A study of and guide to hypertext technology, published in 1995 (but mostly undertaken and
compiled in 1993), "for creative writers looking to move beyond traditional notions
of linearity and univocity." Still useful
material, despite the frustration of some dead links. One
piece by creators, Christopher Keep and Tim McGaughlin, Hypertext (1995)
discusses the emergence of literary hypertext. The Non-linear Tradition in
Literature points to some non-sequential narratives in printed books. --ejc 8/13/98
A select bibliography (and URLography) compiled by Scott Stebelman, Librarian for
English, Philosophy, and the Human Sciences Program at George Washington University.
Last updated 12/97.
URLographies for News Sources
Library of Congress's Lists of
Newspaper and Periodical Resources on the Internet
The Ecola Newstand offers a guide to
English-language media online.
Electronic Journals. And More.
Some Magazines and Journals Online
Salon Magazine feature popular articles and
columns by prominent writers such as Garrison Keillor, Anne Lamott, Barbara Ehrenreich,
Laura Miller, Camille Paglia, etc.
National Geographic Magazine
Utne Reader and other Utne Services Online.
A web magazine on technoculture and other current issues since 1995; archive of journalism
and essays by some well known writers such as Carolyn Guyer and Sven Birkerts.
The current webzine on "serious hypertext" from Eastgate Systems. Topics include
the craft of hypertext, hypertext tools, hypertext patterns, visually rich hypertext,
notable hypertexts, and the web. This is a serious, well-designed resource for writers and
critics of hypertext. --ejc 8/13/98
John December's Computer-Mediated Communication Magazine reports about people,
events, technology, public policy, culture, practices, study, and applications related to
human communication and interaction in online environments. This has been a stable
high-quality journal that I have read for several years; unfortunately, December ended the
journal with the January 1999 issue. The June 1997 issue focused on Writing on the Web.
Also, check out the CMC editorial
policies and guidelines; they make up a whole style manual in themselves. --ejc 2/13/99
An electronic journal of computer writing, rhetoric, and literature from the Computer
Writing and Research Labs at the University of Texas. --ejc 8/13/98
According to the editors "SCROLL is Behaviour New Media's design-driven, multimedia
website showcasing contemporary culture online. This site is an area of constant research
and experimentation, where storytelling, design and technology communicate alternative
ideas." --mak 10/30/98
Visit the index page at the following link to see examples of
plug-ins necessary to view the site: <http://scroll.behaviour.com/whats_new/mainframe.html>.
Try the multimedia exploration of the Frank Gehry's Guggenheim Museum-Bilbao. --ejc
Rhetorics of the
Web: Implications for Teachers of Literacy
Doug Brent. University of Calgary. In Kairos. 17 Mar. 1997. A scholarly article
with meta-text and a detailed index which is organized thematically (background to writing
on the web, and hypertext rhetoric and its effects on readers, writers, and teachers).
Well-organized and useful site. --ejc 8/12/98
Writing in Cyberspace
Pixie Ferris. CMC Magazine. June 1997.
What Is Hypertext? and The Humanities in Cyberspace
Charles Deemer. 1994.
Carolyn Guyer. 1996 ad 1997.
Writing for the New
Millennium: The Birth of Electronic Literature
Robert Kendall's look at hypertext and multimedia literature and its significance for the
future of writing. Poets & Writers Magazine.
A Miscellany of Academic Sites
Yale C/AIM Web Style Guide
Patrick J. Lynch and Sarah Horton. The Center for Advanced Instructional Media.
1997. Covers design philosophy and strategies, interface design, site design, page
design, web graphics, web animation and multimedia, and extensive bibliography. A print
version of the information in this site has recently been published (1999) by Yale; it's
entitled Web Style Guide: Basic Design Principles for Creating Web Sites.
Beyond the MLA Handbook:
Documenting Electronic Sources on the Internet. Andrew Harnack and Gene Klepinger in Kairos.
Last updated 5 Feb. 1999.
Florida Research Ensemble
From Greg Ulmer at the University of Florida. This site includes his courses and some
hypertext experiments by his graduate students.
Pillars of Wisdom
From Stuart Moulthrop. 1994.
Fiction and Theory
Rita Raley,'s Syllabus for a Graduate Course.University of Minnesota, Winter 1999.
Michael Joyce. Vassar College and four Irish arts organizations. Spring 1999.
and Practice of Hypertext
John Unsworth's Course. University of Virginia. Spring 1996.
Len Hatfield, Virginia Tech. Spring 1996.
Michael Joyce at Vassar, Michael Joyce at Eastgate, Michael Joyce at EPC
Robert Kendall's Home Page
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