vcu english2.JPG (2565 bytes)

elizabeth cooper
faculty symposium
february 24, 1999

native and non-native hypertext

hypertext presentation:


native and non-native


literary hypertext

handout for hypertext presentation


elizabeth cooper:



A Collection of Definitions of Hypertext

Native and Non-Native Hypertexts

Categories of Hypertext

A Subjective Chronology of Literary Hypertext, October 1998. Stuart Moulthrop's personal chronology shows developments in technology since 1945 as well as the print precursors to much literary hypertext. He reminds us that the Mac appeared in 1984, the WWW in 1990-91, and Netscape in 1994. Joyce's Afternoon, A Story and other hypertext titles and authors are listed in this clear chronology, which includes some helpful annotations. --ejc 9/23/98


Examples of a Variety of Native Hypertexts

Patterns of Hypertext, Hypertext Gardens, Conversations with Friends: Hypertexts with Characters and Chasing Our Tales
These hypertext articles/essays about hypertext issues and problems by Mark Bernstein, the founder and chief scientist of Eastgate Systems, integrate textual and graphic elements in varying degrees for a variety of purposes. Note that several of them have links to printable versions of the text. Patterns is more sequentially linked than some of the others.

"A White Paper on Information"
This article is hypertexted within several active frames and is sometimes slow to load. The frames provide another "technology" for hypertext--multiple screens with different functions open at once. 
     Matthew Kirschenbaum. "A White Paper on Information."   2 Dec 1998. <>. (14 Feb. 1999)

Tracing the Growth of a New Literature.
     Michael Shumate. CMC Magazine. Dec.1996. (14 Feb. 1999)

Writing Life: Technology, Creativity, and Hypertext Fiction.
     Michael Shumate. Thesis (in draft) for Master of Arts in Liberal Studies, Duke University. 5 Aug.1996. <> (14 Feb. 1999)

Lines for a Virtual T[y/o]pography.
     Matthew Kirschenbaum. Doctoral Disseration in Progress. Department of English. University of Virginia. (14 Feb. 1999)

Kairos: A Journal for Teachers of Writing in Webbed Environments
A progressive and innovative online forum for the exploration of writing, learning, and teaching in hypertextual environments intended primarily for teachers, researchers, and tutors of postsecondary writing, since 1996, is a refereed scholarly journal of pieces of various kinds in native hypertext.
Copyright, Plagiarism, and Intellectual Property (Spring 1998) is a good example of a multivocal "cover web," and  The Unseen "Other" of Intellectual Property Law or Intellectual Property Is Not Property: Debunking the Myths of IP Law  by TyAnna K. Herrington is one of the hypertextual voices.

Graphic designers Peter Horvath and Sharon Matarrazo at 6168 include in their corporate site some interesting essays in which the visual elements play a larger role than the textual. Be sure to visit Three Times Removed and Somewhere Else.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations in the Humanities
According to Matthew Kirschenbaum, this site serves as a clearing-house for online information related to electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) in the humanities. The projects collected here represent a broad range of methodologies and subject matter (at least half are devoted to non-"cyber" topics). Electronic post-prints of paper-based theses and dissertations -- increasingly commonplace -- are not listed here.
Note: This site is available through the etext.lib server at the University of Virginia and is accessible to VCU faculty and students on campus. From home, be prepared to provide the same access codes that you use to enter other restricted VCU databases. --ejc 2/15/99
More of a hypertext site than a "text." According to Michael Keller (2/12/99), Stuart Moulthrop calls the best hypertext on the web with the end nodes being books.


Examples of Non-Native Hypertext

Interfacing American Culture: The Perils and Potentials of Virtual Exhibitions This is a scholarly article with hypertext links to endnotes/references, images you can enlarge, and other sites, including the sites being critiqued. Note that the page numbers that correspond with the print-text version of the article are indicated in bold in the text.  Note also that links take you to footnotes but not back to the place in the text you were just reading. A convention for returning you to your place has been developed so that you don't have to use your back button in the browser.
Electronic Citation: David Silver. "Interfacing American Culture: The Perils and Potentials of Virtual Exhibitions." American Quarterly. 1997. <> (2 Feb. 1999)
Traditional Citation: David Silver. "Interfacing American Culture: The Perils and Potentials of Virtual Exhibitions." American Quarterly 49.4 (1997) 825-850.
See Notes on MLA Citation Form.

Read-Only Memoir
Hilary Rosner. Feed. (2/4/99). This essay is hypertextual only in the sense that it has one metalink. It also links to a printer-friendly version.


Electronic Texts and Sources

American Life Histories
Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1940

Project Muse
This project provides subscription access (VCU subscribes) to the full text of the Johns Hopkins University Press's 40+ scholarly journals in the humanities, social sciences and mathematics. For example, Postmodern CultureAmerican Quarterly (from the American Studies Association), Callaloo (African American literary journal), The Emily Dickinson Journal, The Henry James Review, to name a few.

The Online Books Page
This site, edited by John Mark Ockerbloom at Carnegie Mellon, claims over 8000 books online, many of which have links to sites in some way related to the books, and pointers to many directories and archives of online texts.

Project Gutenberg
This not a site for hypertexts. Its library archives public domain (flat-text) literature in three categories: Light Literature such as Alice in Wonderland, Through the Looking-Glass, Peter Pan, Aesop's Fables, etc.  Heavy Literature such as the Bible or other religious documents, Shakespeare, Moby Dick, Paradise Lost, etc. References such as Roget's Thesaurus, almanacs, and a set of encyclopedia, dictionaries, etc.

University of Virginia Electronic Text Center
The Center aims to build and maintain an internet-accessible collection of SGML texts and images AND to build and maintain a user community adept at the creation and use of these materials. Holdings include approximately 40,000 on- and off-line humanities texts in twelve languages, with more than 19,000 related images (book illustrations, covers, manuscripts, newspaper pages, museum objects, etc.), available on the Internet or CD-ROM.

Project Bartleby
Affiliated with Columbia University from 1993 to 1996, this site is again active. It includes the Oxford Book of English Verse, 1250-1900. You can read about the Bartlebian principles and search the Archive.

The Electronic Poetry Center
From SUNY Buffalo, the EPC provides resources in electronic poetry and poetics, particularly contemporary experimental and formally innovative poetries.

Computers and Texts
The journal/newsletter of the CTI Centre for Textual Studies at Oxford University is distributed in print free of charge to academics in the United Kingdom. The online version is a collection of the full "flat text" articles.

URLographies for Sources in the Humanities

Literary Resources on the Internet
From Jack Lynch at Rutgers University. Last updated 12/98.

Voice of the Shuttle
Web Page for Humanities Research from Alan Liu at the University of California Santa Barbara. A comprehensive, newly updated, multidisciplinary site with sections on hypertext research and theory, cyberpunk fiction, computers and composition, cyberethics and cyberlaw, among many others of interest to hypertext writers. 
--ejc 8/13/98

The English Server
Based in the English Department at Carnegie Mellon University, this site has published writings and artwork to online readers since 1990; offers over twenty thousand works, covering a wide range of interests, grouped under broad subject headings, such as rhetoric and feminism; mostly list of sites with no annotations.
--ejc 2/16/99

The American Studies Web
Fully searchable reference and research guide from Randy Bass at Georgetown University. Excellent section on Literature and Hypertext.
   --ejc 8/13/98

The Electronic Labyrinth
A study of and guide to hypertext technology, published in 1995 (but mostly undertaken and compiled in 1993), "for creative writers looking to move beyond traditional notions of linearity and univocity."
Still useful material, despite the frustration of some dead linksOne piece by creators, Christopher Keep and Tim McGaughlin,  Hypertext (1995) discusses the emergence of literary hypertext. The Non-linear Tradition in Literature points to some non-sequential narratives in printed books. --ejc 8/13/98

Hypertext and Hypermedia
A select bibliography (and URLography) compiled by Scott Stebelman,
Librarian for English, Philosophy, and the Human Sciences Program at George Washington University.   Last updated 12/97.

URLographies for News Sources

Library of Congress's Lists of Newspaper and Periodical Resources on the Internet

The Ecola Newstand offers a guide to English-language media online.

Some More Electronic Journals. And More.

Some Magazines and Journals Online

Salon Magazine feature popular articles and columns by prominent writers such as Garrison Keillor, Anne Lamott, Barbara Ehrenreich, Laura Miller, Camille Paglia, etc.

Atlantic Monthly

National Geographic Magazine

Utne Reader and other Utne Services Online.

A web magazine on technoculture and other current issues since 1995; archive of journalism and essays by some well known writers such as Carolyn Guyer and Sven Birkerts.

Hypertext Now
The current webzine on "serious hypertext" from Eastgate Systems. Topics include the craft of hypertext, hypertext tools, hypertext patterns, visually rich hypertext, notable hypertexts, and the web. This is a serious, well-designed resource for writers and critics of hypertext. --ejc 8/13/98

CMC Magazine
John December's Computer-Mediated Communication Magazine reports about people, events, technology, public policy, culture, practices, study, and applications related to human communication and interaction in online environments. This has been a stable high-quality journal that I have read for several years; unfortunately, December ended the journal with the January 1999 issue. The June 1997 issue focused on Writing on the Web.   Also, check out the CMC editorial policies and guidelines; they make up a whole style manual in themselves.
--ejc 2/13/99

An electronic journal of computer writing, rhetoric, and literature from the Computer Writing and Research Labs at the University of Texas. --ejc 8/13/98

According to the editors "SCROLL is Behaviour New Media's design-driven, multimedia website showcasing contemporary culture online. This site is an area of constant research and experimentation, where storytelling, design and technology communicate alternative ideas."
  --mak 10/30/98
Visit the index page at the following link to see examples of plug-ins necessary to view the site: <>. Try the multimedia exploration of the Frank Gehry's Guggenheim Museum-Bilbao. --ejc 2/14/99


Rhetorics of the Web: Implications for Teachers of Literacy
Doug Brent. University of Calgary. In Kairos. 17 Mar. 1997. A scholarly article with meta-text and a detailed index which is organized thematically (background to writing on the web, and hypertext rhetoric and its effects on readers, writers, and teachers). Well-organized and useful site. --ejc 8/12/98

Writing in Cyberspace
Pixie Ferris. CMC Magazine. June 1997.

What Is Hypertext?  and The Humanities in Cyberspace
Charles Deemer. 1994.

Three Essays
Carolyn Guyer. 1996 ad 1997.

Writing for the New Millennium: The Birth of Electronic Literature
Robert Kendall's look at hypertext and multimedia literature and its significance for the future of writing. Poets & Writers Magazine. Nov./Dec. 1995.

A Miscellany of Academic Sites

Yale C/AIM Web Style Guide
Patrick J. Lynch and Sarah Horton. The Center for Advanced Instructional Media. 1997. Covers design philosophy and strategies, interface design, site design, page design, web graphics, web animation and multimedia, and extensive bibliography. A print version of the information in this site has recently been published (1999) by Yale; it's entitled Web Style Guide: Basic Design Principles for Creating Web Sites.

Beyond the MLA Handbook: Documenting Electronic Sources on the Internet. Andrew Harnack and Gene Klepinger in Kairos. Last updated 5 Feb. 1999.

Florida Research Ensemble
From Greg Ulmer at the University of Florida. This site includes his courses and some hypertext experiments by his graduate students.

Pillars of Wisdom
From Stuart Moulthrop. 1994.

Hypertext Fiction and Theory
Rita Raley,'s Syllabus for a Graduate Course.University of Minnesota, Winter 1999.

Electronic Writing
Michael Joyce. Vassar College and four Irish arts organizations. Spring 1999.

Theory and Practice of Hypertext
John Unsworth's Course. University of Virginia. Spring 1996.

HyperLiterature HyperTheory
Len Hatfield, Virginia Tech. Spring 1996.

Michael Joyce at Vassar, Michael Joyce at Eastgate, Michael Joyce at EPC

Robert Kendall's Home Page


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Hypertext Literature